Qingdao Yufeng Aquatic Feed Co. LTD


Feed selection and scientific feeding method of Penaeus vannamei


Vannamei vannamei is one of the main cultured shrimp in China. In recent years, the cultured area of vannamei vannamei has been expanding, and it has become an important breed for the structural adjustment of aquaculture industry and the increase of farmers' income. In the culture of Vannamei vannamei, feed accounts for more than 60% of the total cost, and the quality of feed is related to the quality and safety of commercial shrimp. To develop the culture of Vannamei vannamei, we must understand its nutritional requirements, try to select relatively cheap raw materials, make efficient artificial compound feed, and scientifically feed, so as to achieve the purpose of increasing the production and economic benefits. Our company (Qingdao Yufeng Aquatic Feed Co., LTD.) produces South American white shrimp feed in strict accordance with the national standards, high survival rate, balanced nutrition.

The requirements of feed and breeding environment

1. Feeding characteristics: Vannamei vannamei is omnivorous, and its juveniles feed on nauplia of zooplankton. In addition to zooplankton, juveniles also feed on benthic juveniles; Adult shrimp feed on living or dead animals and plants and organic debris, such as worms, various aquatic insects and their larvae, small mollusks and crustaceans, algae, etc. The shrimp has the habit of cannibalizing each other, and this habit becomes more obvious with the growth

Feed nutrition: Penaeus vannamei has relatively low requirements on feed, especially on feed protein (especially in the later stage of culture), and the protein content of bait in juvenile shrimp (less than 5cm) is more than 35%; The protein content of adult shrimp (5 ~ 12cm) can be reduced to 30% ~ 20%. The inorganic salt in the diet is particularly important (calcium and phosphorus are the main components of skeleton, and part of each molting needs to be consumed). The total calcium content of the diet is 1.5% ~ 2.0%, the total phosphorus content is 1.0% ~ 1.8%, and the ratio of calcium and phosphorus is 1∶1 or 1.5∶1.

Culture environment: Penaeus vannamei belongs to tropical shrimp, the growth temperature is 15-38 ℃, the optimal water temperature is 22-35 ℃, the feed utilization rate and feed return are the highest at 27-31 ℃. The water quality is required to be between HP 7.3 and 8.6, dissolved oxygen above 5mg/L, ammonia nitrogen below 0.2mg/L, H2S at the bottom of the tank less than 0.1mg/L, organic matter content less than 5mg/L, and transparency between 35 and 60cm. To meet the above environmental requirements, the best utilization rate of high quality feed can be achieved.

Special feed selection

1. Feed manufacturer selection: There are many special feed manufacturers for South American white shrimp on the market now, undifferentiated. Farmers to buy feed, to choose a certain scale, strong technical force, after-sales service in place, good reputation, good breeding effect (mainly with high price efficiency ratio and high survival rate as parameters) feed manufacturers.

2. Requirements for feed selection: The compound feed is required to have no pesticide residue, the content of toxic and harmful substances is controlled within the safe permissible range, no pathogenic microorganisms, mycotoxin does not exceed the standard, and does not pollute the environment or affect human health. Three conditions must be met at the same time: (1) Provide adequate and balanced nutrition ingredients for Vannamei vannamei, at the same time, do not contain prohibited ingredients, conform to NY5072 standards, and have no toxic effect on cultured objects; ② There is no harmful residue in commercial shrimp, no threat to food safety and no harm to human health; ③ The excreta and residual bait of aquatic animals are pollution-free and conducive to sustainable development.

3. Selection of feed products: ① The products should be adapted to different growth stages of cultured Penaeus vannamei to avoid nutritional metabolic diseases caused by mismatch of feed nutritional formula. ② The diameter grain of feed should be suitable for the mouth meridian size of Penaeus vannamei. ③ The uniformity and consistency of the feed are good, and the identification method is as follows: the apparent color of the feed is uniform; Tasting a few doesn't make much difference; After being immersed in a transparent glass bottle, the difference in the size of residual particles is small. (4) Good degree of bonding gelatinization, no dust concentration in the feed bag is required, and it will not spread out at least 1h in water. ⑤ The label should be cleared, and the quality parameters of the components, factory date and shelf life, storage requirements, use methods and matters needing attention.

Feed preparation and processing

Farmers with a certain scale can buy raw materials themselves and go to the nearby feed processing plant for processing, which can reduce the feed cost by more than 30%, and the quality of the feed is reliable and targeted (such as adding drugs for disease prevention and treatment).

1. Feed formula: according to the price of local raw materials, nutrient content and nutritional requirements of shrimp at all stages, the design is carried out manually or by computer to determine the scientific and reasonable formula as the object of processing. Generally can refer to the following formula: fish meal 17%, soybean meal 40%, wheat bran 27%, secondary powder 10%, bone meal 3%, additive 3%. A certain amount of allicin, polysaccharide, beneficial microorganism or Chinese and western medicine can be added to the feed during the vigorous growth period of shrimp to promote growth and prevent and cure diseases.

2. Processing requirements: Penaeus vannamei generally live in the bottom, and chew slowly with food when ingesting, so it is required to sink quickly in water for compound feed, and it is not easy to be broken in water, so it is necessary to add an appropriate amount of adhesive and use hard pellet machine for processing. All kinds of raw materials are crushed through 40 target quasi screen (ideal particle size is 144 ~ 360 micron). Feed particle size: shrimp body length less than 3cm, particle size 0.5-1.5mm, grain length 1.5-3mm; Shrimp body length 3.1-6cm, particle size 1.2-2.0mm, grain length 2.0-5.0mm; Shrimp body length is more than 6cm, particle size is 1.8 ~ 2.5mm, grain length is 4.0 ~ 8.0mm.

3. Feed storage: The compound feed of prawn is composed of a variety of agricultural products or their by-products and fish meal, inorganic salts, vitamins and other ingredients, rich in nutrients, easy to absorb water and deteriorate. Therefore, it should be stored in a dry, well-ventilated warehouse, and pay attention to moisture-proof, rainproof and anti-insect pest, rodent, at the same time to prevent toxic substances pollution. Under good conditions, it can be stored for about 90 days.

Feed feeding technology

1. Feeding place. Larvae mostly live in the shallow water near the pond in the early stage, and the depth of 0.3-0.5 m around the pond is the ideal feeding area. With the growth of shrimp gradually moving to the deep water area, feeding can be carried out in the depth of 0.5-1m in the middle stage, and feeding should not be carried out in the deep water such as the central ditch, because of the lack of dissolved oxygen in the deep water area above 2m, penaeus vannamei seldom perch and forage in this water layer. A long strip pond can be set aside a non-feeding area at the inlet to serve as a shelter for Penaeus vannamei to inhabit and hypoxic.

2. Feeding times. Penaeus vannamei has the characteristic of continuous feeding, but there is a certain rhythm. There are two feeding peaks in day and night, from 18 to 21 and 3 to 6 respectively, and the lowest feeding amount in day is from 9 to 15. In order to improve feed utilization rate, reduce the pollution of pond water by residual baits, and accelerate the growth rate of Penaeus vannamei, 4 times a day should be fed in the middle and late stage of culture, and the total amount of night feeding should be more than 50% of the daily diet. Specific feeding time and proportion: 6:00 ~ 7:00, proportion 30%; 11:00 ~ 12:00, 15%; 17:00 ~ 18:00, 35%; 20:00 ~ 23:00, 20%.

3. The amount of bait should be determined according to the weather, survival rate, health status, water quality environment, molting situation, medication, amount of biological bait and other factors. Shrimp seedlings just under the pond, feeding amount of every 200,000 seedlings about 1kg; With the growth of shrimp, daily bait feeding can be determined according to the weight of shrimp in the pond. The following proportion data can be referred to: juvenile shrimp (less than 3g) 7%-9%; Medium shrimp (3-6g) 5%-7%; Adult shrimp (more than 6g) 3% ~ 5%. Check and observe the feeding situation of bait station frequently, adjust the feeding amount of bait in time. The principle is to shorten the immersion time of feed in water as far as possible under the premise of full penaeus vannamei, in order to reduce the leaching and loss of feed nutrients, and reduce the pollution of pond water. Especially South American white shrimp have gluttony behavior, after gluttony will appear anorexia phenomenon.

4. Feeding principle: ① Adhere to frequent feeding and less feeding, shrimp seedlings under the pond to shrimp weight less than 3g, feeding 4 ~ 5 times a day, then feeding about 3 times a day; ② Feed more after evening and early morning, less feed under the hot sun; ③ After 1.5 hours of feeding, feed more when the empty stomach rate is high (over 30%); ④ Feed less when the water temperature is lower than 15℃ or higher than 32℃; (5) in the pool, the competition object is more appropriate feeding; ⑥ Feed more when the water quality is good, feed less when the water quality is bad; ⑦ When there is enough biological bait in the pool, it can be fed less properly.

The way to improve feed reward

1. Increase dissolved oxygen in pool water. The dissolved oxygen in water should be no less than 5mg/L in order to ensure the maximum use of the feed for the full growth of penaeus vannamei. Therefore, when raising shrimp in high density, it is necessary to consider the installation of oxygen increasing machine or bottom oxygen increasing system, and in the breeding process to measure the dissolved oxygen index frequently, take measures such as adding water to change water, improving the substrate, using oxygen increasing machine, so that the dissolved oxygen is sufficient, conducive to feed digestion and absorption, reduce the feed coefficient.

2, improve pond water quality. Before the shrimp seedling release, to remove too much silt at the bottom of the pool, usually do patrol pond, observation, inspection, pay attention to the change of water quality and substrate, the use of water quality improveers (such as zeolite powder, activated carbon, clay, photosynthetic bacteria. EM bacteria, etc.), regularly test and analyze the physical and chemical indicators of water quality, find problems and deal with them in time, so that the P-H value, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, nitrite and so on in the water are in a good control range.

3,Pay attention to training food. Penaeus vannamei is selective to feed, and its feeding behavior is affected by conditioned reflex. It is necessary to undergo a period of domestication before changing feed varieties and specifications. By training food, make prawn formed fixed point, fixed group grab food habit. Artificial food training, 3~4 times a day, about 1 hour each time, requires less slow spread, after patient food training, finally can determine every day feeding time and feeding speed.

4, control wild miscellaneous fish, intensive shrimp pond in water, change water, it is difficult to avoid mixing into some wild fish, shrimp or eggs, they reproduce in the pool, and aquaculture shrimp for food, oxygen, space. Therefore, before the shrimp seedlings are raised, it is necessary to thoroughly clean the pond and disinfect it, and filter the water through the dense eye net to prevent mixing with wild fish, shrimp and fertilized eggs.